Ringworm is an infection of the hair. It is caused by various types of fungi.
Ringworm is part of a group of diseases of the skin and its appendages (hair, hair, nails) caused by fungi called dermatophytes. It also refers to as ringworm dermatophytosis. This is not a serious disease, but it is highly contagious.
Ringworm of the scalp are benign, highly contagious, affecting mainly children. Depending on the type of fungus involved, there are two types of ringworm:
In France, anthropophilic tinea predominate in urban areas and most often affect persons from sub-Sahelian Africa.Outbreaks of ringworm of the scalp occasionally occur in communities, especially children as drop-in centers and schools.
Contamination occurs so either directly in contact with a human or an infected animal or indirectly through contaminated objects (combs, hats, towels …).
These are fungal spores that are responsible.
Very resistant, they can survive very long outside environment. Spores penetrate the hair and brittle, causing them to fall.
Due to the highly contagious ringworm, screening should be performed in all family members of affected children.
Clinical manifestations vary with the type ringworm dermatophytes.
It is possible to distinguish between:
The diagnosis can be guided by an examination of the lesions with a special light called a Wood’s light, which in some types of ringworm, gives a green fluorescent bright blue haired contaminated.
However, even if the patient shows signs highly suggestive of ringworm, the diagnosis must be confirmed by the detection of the fungus in the hair.
Only this mycological examination can accurately identify the source of dermatophyte infection.
Treatment with antimycotics.
The treatment of ringworm based on oral antifungals or antifungal for several weeks because the fungi are very resistant.
Some forms are more difficult to treat as Trichophyton tonsurans due to that. Local treatment with specific shampoos will not cure the infection but can reduce the spread of spores and therefore infectiousness. Shaving the hair has the same effect, but mowing is not always complete required.
It is also unnecessary to wear a cap to try to limit the contamination of the environment. However, it is essential to separate the personal effects and other accessories (comb, brush, towel, glove …) of the patient.
If ringworm is caused by a fungus zoophile, animal suspected of being the source of the contamination must be seen by a veterinarian.
Regulations concerning the eviction school has evolved. It is no longer necessary to provide evidence of the disappearance of the pathogen (negative mycological examination) to allow the child to return to school.
Since 2003, simply submit a medical certificate “attesting to consultation and prescribing appropriate treatment.”
Health officials also recommend “a systematic review of scalp for children in the class and personal contact.”
Is it serious?
Yes in the case of ringworm favique because hair will not grow back. This is very unfortunate for the future well-being of the child.
Ringworm is it transmitted by animals?
Yes, cats and dogs (and some farm animals, as young animals) can transmit a fungus (Microsporum canis) and cause ringworm. But this moth is not transmitted from person to person and then another. But there are several other fungi that are transmitted by humans.
How do you get?
The moths are transmitted from person to person or from animal to person, or by skin contact or by fingers contaminated by the fungus. They can cause small outbreaks in a school, but it shows less in France, if at all.
What tests do?
Direct examination under the microscope, to just watch if it is indeed a fungus. It simply confirms parasitism. The result is known in a few days (one week).
Culture, which allows the fungus to grow and learn more about its exact nature (eg whether it comes from an animal). The result is given after 3 to 4 weeks, it is final.
Why take such a treatment by the mouth?
The fungus attacks the hair therefore, weakens the case, and progressing towards the root with which it will sink into the skin to shelter outpatient treatment (which makes the surface of the skin). It is for this reason that a treatment called “systemically”, that is to say, by mouth, is sometimes necessary.
Infectious and Tropical Diseases
Exercised most often in the hospital this specialty studies and supports diseases caused by microbes : bacteria (tuberculosis, skin infections), viruses (AIDS, hepatitis), mushrooms (fungi), parasites (malaria). Most of these diseases exist in France, but they are still present in the tropics.
Today, with increased travel and because of climate change, tropical diseases are more frequent in hospitals.